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Cancer Cell Research (Online ISSN: 2161-2609)

Current Issue

Vol.10  No.40

Article: Combined Phytochemicals, A Potential Approach to Reduce the Disparity of Breast Cancer in African American Women
by Divine Boka, Hongwei Si
Cancer Cell Research 2023 10(39) 918-925; published online  30 March 2024
Abstract: Estrogen Receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, constituting 75% of cases, presents a significant health disparity in African American women (AAW) compared to Caucasian American women (CAW). Lower vegetable and fruit consumption may contribute to this breast cancer disparity among AAW. Phytochemicals, such as luteolin (LUT) from broccoli, celery, and peppers and indole-3- carbinol (I3C) from cruciferous vegetables, exhibit anti-cancer properties. However, there is a significant phytochemicals dosage gap between in vitro studies and human physiological levels after oral intake of vegetables or pure phytochemicals. In this mini-review, we focused on combining two or more phytochemicals at relatively low levels to synergistically exert ER-positive breast cancer in animals and cells. We concluded that selective eating of phytochemical-rich foods might lower the chance of developing ER+ breast cancer, particularly among AAW who had lower fruit and vegetable consumption and higher levels of ER+ breast cancer death compared to CAW.

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